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by Graham Yuill 
Terrorist Expert/Driving Consultant
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The Salisbury Poisoning
 

On the 4th of March 2018, a former Russian military intelligence officer Sergei Viktorovich Skripal and his daughter Yulia were discovered to be seriously ill. They slumped on a public bench outside a shopping centre in Salisbury, southern England, leaving them critically ill in the hospital for weeks. It was soon established that a deadly nerve agent called Novichok was used in the attack, highly likely sanctioned by Russia. 

 

With the world’s media focused on the event a bizarre series of accusations and denials by both governments quickly followed, triggering off a diplomatic row, with expulsions and sanctions on both sides, with no endgame in sight. Police linked the attack to another poisoning in June later that year in which Dawn Sturgess and her partner Charlie Rowley fell ill in Amesbury, only a few miles from the Skripal investigation. Tests at the UK’s military research laboratory, Porton Down established that they were exposed to the same deadly Novichok nerve agent known as A-234 after handling a contaminated and cleverly designed counterfeit Nina Ricci perfume bottle. 

 

There was further outrage when Ms. Sturgess died in the hospital a few weeks later. The British government announced that the highest echelons of the Russian leadership was involved, “highly likely” sanctioned by president Vladimir Putin in the attempt to kill Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia. This accusation caused outrage in Russia, as their people did not accept as true, the British government’s version of the incident, voicing that their intelligence service would never use such a gruesome method of killing someone. It can be conjectured that the Soviets are now more concerned about the adverse publicity in the UK allegedly caused by GRU assassinations than they were in previous years. So it is not surprising that the Russian government completely denied any knowledge of the allegations, subsequently blaming the UK for the poisoning by using a highly dangerous substance in a populated area and for exploiting the scandal to deflect public attention from the internal problems (mainly Brexit) within Theresa May’s beleaguered government. Britain’s weak and sluggish response to the fatal poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko a British naturalized Russian defector on the 23rd November 2006, in London, which a public inquiry revealed was sanctioned by the Kremlin, may have inspired Moscow to assassinate Skripal. 

 

It has been widely reported that Theresa May personally intervened to delay the public inquiry into Litvinenko’s death, citing the need to protect international relations with Russia and that her government would never cover up an assassination for political reasons.  The UK government reserves the right for the hyper-cautious practice of ensuring that we don’t venture out but instead wrap ourselves up in cotton wool and stay indoors on a Saturday night and watch “Strictly.” Russian assassins have been able to kill in Britain with impunity since the cold war era and given the nature of the weapon used, clearly, there's someone very angry and extremely clever behind it.

 

Perhaps the reasons why the British government has dragged its feet and turned a blind eye to the Skripal poisoning include fear of retaliation and police incompetence. Nor does the British government have any political enthusiasm to deal with the Russian Federation knowing fine well The Kremlin has stepped up its efforts to eliminate and silence its critics in the UK, even more now than ever before especially during the past few years. Without a doubt, the Skripal poisoning attack was Putin’s “calling card” demonstrating to anyone, no matter where they are in the world, that if they betray or challenge Russia they would die a horrible death. But mark my words; the very real truth about the poisoning shall all come to light one day.

 

 

The Real Salisbury Poisoner

Opinion

The Term "Accident"

Every driver is a so-called expert. Those working in driving safety or education as well as the police and other emergency services, that have to deal with all types of traffic collisions on a daily basis are well aware that it takes more than simply passing a driving test to be an expert driver. A crash is not an accident. Since ninety-five per cent of all traffic collisions are caused by human error and in most cases at least two people were involved, each of who will undoubtedly blame each other. Changing the way we think about incidents and the words we use to explain them, affects the way drivers behave. Vehicle collisions are without doubt both predictable and avoidable events. Constant everyday use of the word “accident” encourages the perception that these events are just part of every day life. The words “collision,” “crash,” and “smash is the correct terminology that should be used, and should also be encouraged as alternatives words for the term “accident.” Driving requires 100 per cent concentration and even a momentary lapse could prove serious or even fatal. By reading all or at least some of the advice covered in this website your chances of having a crash will be significantly reduced. Your ultimate aim is to have zero collisions and drive in a way so that you always “Drive and Survive.”

Road Rage​​

The phrase road rage or “mad drivers disease” was invented in the 1980’s by a Californian newspaper when a truck driver was shot dead by a Cadillac driver whom he cut up on the freeway.  Motorists have always been involved with on the road violence and madness ever since motor vehicles were introduced to our roads. There are however, newspaper reports from the 1920’s that recall frenzied drivers leaping out of their cars and bashing each other’s headlights.  Motorists have been shot for such trivial reasons as turning too slowly or simply for just being there on the road.   Recent years have also witnessed the escalation of vicious encounters on the roads’ leading to rude, dirty, and aggressive episodes often with physical violence and killings as an outcome.  

 

The sight of people fighting or shooting each other raises the possibility of psychopathic behaviour on the roads. There are three reasons why road rage is on the increase.  First, there are too many cars competing for too little road space, which means we grow agitated as rats in an over-populated cage, experiments show they attack each other.  Second, cars now feel too safe, which leads to over confidence.  A car symbolizes power; road conditions create impotence. The result is bewildered rage.  The third, some drivers are less courteous and considerate to other road users than some years ago.  By comparison there has been a universal deterioration in people’s attitudes in society, and this is reflected in their driving behaviour.  These three elements together have made an explosive mixture. 

 

There are two groups of people who are likely to succumb to road rage.  People with anti-social personality disorders or people who believe they are special and those they know what is right. They are also likely to misinterpret small incidents on the road and attempt to do something about it. Most road rage offenders are perfectly normal human beings who have no criminal record of violence.  

 

There is beyond doubt a barbaric streak deep inside some drivers that inflames when they get behind the wheel.  Driving in congested town or city traffic, which is an ideal breading ground for road rage, can influence this irrational driving behaviour.  Similarly, our overcrowded roads are similar to the way animals behave in the wild. Dominance is very similar in the concrete jungle as it is in nature.  The desire to assert dominance is down to whose got the biggest antlers? Other people mostly dictate our lives. 

 

When drivers get into their cars they are in command of what is happening.  That sense of mastery can result in a sense of superiority.  Anything seen as a threat to that superiority, such as a car tailgating provokes an aggressive reaction.  The car itself becomes a sort of weapon. People who are generally mild-mannered start raising their fists or shout verbal abuse.  The car itself gives a false sense of security.  Some drivers feel powerful in a car, but they also feel everybody is out to get them.  Quite often you see drivers sticking up a finger in a way they would never imagine of outside a car. 

 

During normal driving, our stress levels increase and this stress accumulates when drivers worry needlessly that they must keep to strict timetables, their vehicle may get stuck in a traffic jam, another vehicle may crash into it or it may break down.  Before anything happens, drivers have already got themselves into a state of anxiety and when something does occur, they are primed to explode. Some drivers even turn into psychopathic road warriors. There is also greater anger in society and greater need to outdo other people driving past them.  Those with powerful cars inadvertently issue a biological challenge and this can escalate into vehicle combat.  

 

When drivers are engaged in vehicle combat the body starts to produce adrenaline.  Similarly, if the body produces too much adrenaline it responds in one of three ways. Flight (run away) freezes or fights. If either driver chooses to fight he or she can undergo a severe personality switch, changing from a person of quite normal disposition to an irrational psychopath. We are in danger of trivializing rage and using it as an excuse for a whole range of unacceptable emotions.  Each time someone makes a rude gesture or cuts you up on the road we dub it road rage. This is more often plane rudeness than rage.   Someone who has had a bad day at work and wanted to shout at his or her boss may be the person who has road rage on the way home.  

 

The crux of road rage is that the other driver was in the wrong: they have been driving badly not me.  Road rage is just part of a wider phenomenon that boils down to the fact that other drivers don’t seem to like other motorists very much. They seem to dislike the behaviour of other drivers.  But when it comes to their own behaviour, drivers consider them selves mostly as little angels. When someone is on the verge of anger he or she needs time to slow the process down.  Don’t rise to the bait – you must remain cool.  Back down and try not to engage with them verbally.  

 

If you do acknowledge the anger say something like “You’re obviously very upset by something I’ve done.” Always be patient and tolerant whilst driving behind the wheel. Anything you do to irritate another driver will increase the chance of a collision.  If another driver shows lack of care or good manners, never retaliate. Keep driving normally and do not speed. Under no circumstances give chase – what would you achieve? The hand gesturing at you out of the window is as likely to be holding a gun as an assortment of fingers. 

 

The ten most common causes of road rage are as follows:

 

1.      Aggressive tailgating.

2.      Angry headlight flashing.

3.      Making obscene gestures.

4.      Deliberately obstructing other vehicles.

5.      Giving verbal abuse.

6.      Unnecessary centre or outer lane cruising.

7.      Driving too slowly.

8.      Emerging or cutting in front of closely approaching traffic.

9.      Not signalling where necessary.

10.    Angry horn tooting.   

 

Here are some does and don’ts for reducing road rage risks:

 

Do

·      Forget the row you had with your spouse over the burnt toast/the business of the day, and concentrate on your driving.

·      Lock your doors and close your sunroof to avoid unauthorized entry.

·      Try and stay calm if another driver provokes you.

·      Avoid eye contact with your aggressor.

·      Attempt to drive away from the scene if your crazed assailant approaches your vehicle to avoid further confrontation.

·      Take a note of your aggressor’s license plate details and report the incident to the police.

·      Put your radio, CD or music player on to distract you in tense situations such as traffic jams.

·      Count from one to ten to stop you leaping out of your vehicle in a blind rage.

·      Show courtesy to other drivers, which can calm ruffled tempers.

·      Acknowledge your driving faults by apologizing to the other driver.

·      Keep your emotions in check and think about the consequences of your behaviour before you react. 

·      See a psychiatrist if you cannot control your road rage.

 

Don’t:

·      Make rude gestures to your assailant.

·      Get even if you are assaulted.

·      Overreact to what is already a tense situation.

·      Carry items in your car that could be used as a dangerous weapon.

·      Shout or bawl if you are provoked.

·      Challenge your aggressor if you are confronted.

·      Leave the safety of your vehicle if you sense trouble or threaten your aggressor.

·      Retaliate by slamming on your brakes suddenly, flashing lights or honking.

·      Goad your assailant into vehicle combat.

·      Many parking space disagreements result in violence. 

*      Steal some one else’s parking space may provoke aggressive reactions

·      Make sure your vehicle takes up only one parking space.

Automotive Technology

 

Car manufacturers are compelled by law to design and build motor vehicles that comply with the highest safety standards. They use modern computers, in addition to assembly line robots that are programmed to position parts in the exact place consistently. They also invrest significantly in extensive research and development to produce safe vehicles that are fitted with the latest automotive technology, as well as being comfortable, easier and safer to drive. However, in spite of this you must never be complacent. A leading Japanese car manufacturer has designed miniature robot cars that can travel in a group communicating their position without crashing into one another. Through making full use of cutting-edge electronic technology the robots use built in laser range finders. This technology will help to create “collision free” cars and help contribute to a traffic-jam free driving environment. In addition research is now being carried out to develop cars that drive themselves in traffic without human intervention sooner than you may think.

 

The self-driving cars, which will be able to recognize and respond to traffic lights and signs, will almost certainly work through Internet connectivity. The researchers believe that this state of the art technology could almost halve the number of automobile-related deaths in the USA since computers are theoretically better at driving than humans because homo- sapiens are stupid, easily distracted and have immensely slower reaction times than software. We need to address the question of road safety, as years of legislation will have to be overhauled before cars can cruise the streets without qualified drivers behind the wheel. Besides will the system require human intervention in the event of a technical malfunction, and will cars regularly be subject to cyber attack. In other words, hacked and driven into the Missouri River from the likes of some spotty 14- year old from the Philippians because everything is wired up to the moon. With a bit of luck the smart text-to-speech interface built into the car will prevent those in the car from tweeting themselves into a tree. As a consolation car manufacturers will be able to study data from the EyeSee Cam camera system to help prevent road crashes from happening again

Voice Activated Control Systems

Due to recent technological developments drivers can now use voice commands to control almost any computerized or electronic gadget within the car. As soon as the driver activates the system using buttons on the steering wheel, the voice activated control system listens and responds to the driver’s voice commands. To prevent drivers from being distracted, navigation assistance and web pages from the Internet can be read out to the driver when the vehicle is been driven on the road. The driver will also have the ability to view data displayed on an in-car monitor when the car is stationary. This unique system also enables drivers to keep their hands in more contact with the steering wheel and their attention focused on the road ahead.

Cars of the Future

From a personal point of view, I believe that many cars made in the future will have revolutionary built in new features to make them safer, more reliable, more exciting to drive, and more technologically refined. For example, joysticks will replace the steering wheel. The car's acceleration, braking and steering will be controlled by hand, and so the foot pedals will no longer be required, providing additional space for the driver. Vehicles will find the nearest parking space without delay and park on its own accord, while the driver goes about his or her business. Don’t worry about someone stealing the ignition key after it has been parked robotically - the car won’t have one. Instead cars will have built-in eye or finger print recognition using ultrasound, which will only permit authorized mortals to drive, as well as voice and facial recognition technology. Cars will be permanently connected to the Internet whilst a dashboard-mounted screen will display two separate images - one exclusively for the driver and a separate screen for the front seat passenger. Passengers will be able to watch any film or television program ever produced constantly being interrupted by annoying online advertisements such as “Travel warp drive with Virgin Galactic to Alpha Centauri in only two weeks.” Those who have passed their aviation-driving test will be able to enter their Sky-car, drive it to the nearest Skydrome, program their destination and fly straight to that location. Sky Traffic Controllers will monitor their every move to make sure they don’t have a mid-air collision. By law every Sky-car will have to be equipped with an on board crash prevention system designed to alert the driver when cars are driving dangerously too close or heading for a collision.

 

To prevent an impact during extreme weather Sky-cars will automatically be diverted to scheduled flight paths so they can arrive at their destination safely. Unmanned eye in the sky spy drones equipped with the latest high-powered cameras will police the skies for offending motorists and routinely monitor unlawful drivers on the ground. Since all cars will be micro-chipped aerial drones will be equipped with technology capable of tracking the vehicle’s every move. Besides if someone commits a crime or if the car is stolen, to avoid deadly high-speed chases, the spy drone will be able to disable the vehicle in its tracks by way of a satellite. To save time and money as well as assist busy, delayed or stranded drivers, commercial and privately owned remote controlled off-board computers will guide unmanned aerial drones to deliver fast food, coffee, mail, important documents, life saving medicines and other essential items.

 

If you are involved or witness a serious collision you will be able to use an app downloaded on your cell phone to request the assistance of the emergency services. If they are any serious or life threatening injuries a controller will direct a strategically positioned flying ambulance drone situated on the rooftop of the nearest accident and emergency hospital directly to the scene. As soon as the drone arrives at the crash scene equipped with vital emergency life saving equipment, a specialist using a state-of-the-art camera will examine the situation immediately, and will be able to guide you through any crucial life saving or first aid procedures before the emergency services arrive.

On board every car will have a hands-free voice-recognition system so the driver can operate the vehicles onboard artificial intelligence (AI) computer system. This will allow the driver to keep his or her eyes focused on the road and their hands on the steering wheel. The driver will also be able to send an email or surf the Internet using digitized speech whilst a smart text-to-speech interface will be built into the car to prevent drivers from tweeting themselves into the rear end of another vehicle. The cars on board AI computer system will even be able to assess your intentions and alert you to any dangers that are happening ahead and relay the safest options to you within a Millisecond. The computer will then take over the controls if you fail to act properly or do not comply.

Cars of the future

Car Bombs

Terrorists and dissident groups, commonly use car bombs also known as Improvised Explosive Devices. You can help the security forces by being vigilant and by using the observation techniques even when walking along the street. Politically motivated terrorist groups can be distinguished by their ideology which is a set of opinions or beliefs relating to a group or an individual that symbolize a specific belief and way of life. Because of their distorted ideology, extremists resort to using car bombs, to achieve their political aim. They are generally aimed at members of the security forces, politicians, or economic targets usually incorporating a long-term strategy, designed to beat a Government into submission for a political cause.

 

Living proof is the IRA's 1993 proxy truck bomb attack in the Bishopsgate area of London's financial district sent shock waves throughout the country. British intelligence agents and spies managed to infiltrate and weaken the IRA from within, leaving it virtually in military ruin. Because of those events materializing this forced both Britain’s elected conservative government and the IRA to seek a political settlement. Car bombs are one of the most favoured and widely used terrorist weapons because they are easy to pack with explosives and often not checked properly by the security forces.

 

The type of explosive device will vary according to the nature and the experience of the handler. In addition, the terrorist receives mass media coverage. Some capital cities have been targeted as specific areas for car bombs. If a car bomb explodes, the effect can be devastating. It causes chaos and panic and it can even bring a city to a virtual standstill.

 

Warnings are sometimes given, but often there is insufficient time for the authorities to react.

 

There are two main types of car bomb that terrorists use; they are as follows:

  1. A large quality of explosives put into the trunk of a car or stowed in a truck and triggered when the vehicle is moved or turned on.

  2. A small sophisticated device usually placed underneath the victim’s car.

 

When the victim drives a cell phone or wireless signal triggers the explosive. In some car bombings, explosives are rigged to a vehicles ignition system, and triggered when the victim turns the ignition on. An electronic timer is normally attached to a bomb to make it explode. There are many different timers on the market. The most sophisticated electronic timers are based on remote controls for TVs, and CD players etc. These allow the bomb to be primed days and sometimes weeks in advance. Bombs attached to a timing device usually have an anti-handling booby trap. Many assaults, kidnappings and murders take place in or near the victim’s motorcar.

 

A specific example being the Member of Parliament for Eastbourne, England, Ian Gow, left his house shortly after breakfast and walked out to his car. When Mr Gow drove out of the carport, his car was blown apart as the terrorist’s bomb, planted directly underneath the driver’s seat exploded. The UK Member of Parliament, who was a personal friend of Mrs Thatcher, and her parliamentary secretary for four years, was still alive when paramedics arrived at the scene; but he died as his shattered body was lifted into an ambulance. For that reason, the first thing you should do before starting the engine is to look under the drivers’ seat as well as watch out for any dubious looking characters hanging about that are likely too push the button at any given time. Car bombs are frequently used in suicide attacks where a car or truck is packed with explosives and then driven into a building, or other planned target often causing mayhem, untold damage, injuries and death.

Bomb Triggering Methods

 

There are many ways a bomb can be command detonated or triggered by the victim.

Self-acting devices – triggered by the victim.

 

1. Disturbing a trip wire
2. Applying pressure
3. Releasing pressure

4. Shedding light

5. Causing vibration.

Command detonated – set off by someone else

1. Pulling a cord
2. Electric cable
3. Signal or radio beam.

The techniques and explosive materials used by terrorists for initiating IED’s are constantly changing and so are their methods of application. For example, the Boston marathon bombers – the Russian born Tsarnaev brothers used remote controllers for toy cars to trigger two pressure cookers bombs which killed 3 people and injuring an estimated 264 other persons. Serving military personnel, prison warders and police officers in the UK should be particularly vigilant at all times regarding their own personal safety. Because dissident republicans opposed to the peace process are still actively involved in planning and executing terrorist assassinations against them. It would be contradictory and foolish to believe that the Real IRA does not have a network of informants in public agencies such as social security offices and vehicle licensing departments. The deadly threat from violent extremists must always be taken seriously.

 

If you work for the military or are a serving prison or police officer, and you travel to work by car vary your routes on a daily basis. Make sure your uniform is completely covered up to avoid being noticed. Better still change into your uniform whilst at work. If you are issued with a personal protection weapon make sure it is hidden from view, and clean it meticulously every day as your life could depend on it.

 

If you leave your vehicle unattended, always physically check under your vehicle before driving it even if it’s locked in your garage or parked in protected military barracks, prison or police car park. Someone can con or sneak their way in or perhaps a civilian terrorist sympathizer employed within the establishment can easily plant a car bomb hoping that you will not check for booby traps and devices when you return. Ensure bona-fide personnel only know your movements by car.

Know your vehicle inside out. This means remembering the layout under the hood well enough to spot any minor additions, which could be a bomb. Report any suspicious activity immediately to the relevant authorities. Remember the registration number and description of a vehicle may be easier to obtain and more helpful than a personal description. Reporting anything unusual gives security specialists the chance to judge its significance. The New IRA have used car bombs in a number of attacks in the past, and the most effective way to counter the threat of a car bomb is to physically look under the vehicle for anything suspicious rather than rely on mirrors or chance.

 

The IRA once issued a chilling public statement, which pronounced: "Today we were unlucky, but remember, we only have to be lucky once; you will have to be lucky always.”

 

Never let your guard down or underestimate your adversaries. Dissident republicans have been known to take photographs and record vehicle registration plates from outside the perimeter fence of prisons to identify vehicles commonly driven by staff travelling to and from work. They tend to target oppressive prison officers in the habit of beating up or ill-treating prisoners. The terrorists can use this intelligence to help build up a behaviour profile and target them for assassination. The most important aspect of conducting a vehicle search is situational awareness.

 

A systematic examination is essential if you want to keep safe. Search the vehicle in five areas:

1. Underneath
2. Outside
3. Interior
4. Engine compartment

5. Inside the boot.

There are various hi-tech sensors and electronic detection devices on the market to check underneath a vehicle but the most straightforward and reliable way is to check underneath by using an inspection mirror. Do not wear anything that may get caught in the engine for example, jewellery, loose fitting clothing, particularly scarves or neckties. Ensure the hood is secure, the engine is switched off and the parking brake is set before checking the vehicle. There are many precautions you can take to guard against a car bomb. For example, if you leave your vehicle unattended, always check your car for booby traps and devices when you return. Close all windows, lock the doors and park your car as close to a building entrance as possible or in an area where there is Closed Circuit Television (CCTV).

 

CCTV cameras come in many forms but are predominately overt and covert. Since those types of cameras require some degree of light in order to produce images some cameras can only operate using infrared lighting, which allows them to see in the dark. Infrared light is not visible to the naked eye but a red glow might be evident. Overt cameras cannot only be seen, but the direction in which the lens is pointing can also be seen. Covert cameras are cameras that are covered or hidden inside casing normally accompanying some other function for example smoke detectors and water sprinkler heads. They are used wherever people are unaware that they are not likely to be observed. Avoid leaving your vehicle unattended for long periods.

 

Try and park where your vehicle can be seen. If you park your car in a locked garage overnight always remove the ignition key when you leave your vehicle. If your car is garaged, sprinkle a fine layer of powder around then car at night and check that this has not been disturbed by the morning. If you see chunks of dirt on the ground, always be suspicious, as they may have been dislodged from under the car. Keep your car spotless at all times. This will show up any tire marks on the bodywork if someone has been tampering with your vehicle. At night always park in a well-lit street. When it is raining, someone may plant a bomb under your car hoping that you will drive off without first checking your vehicle. Make sure you do. Remember, flash cars draw attention. Use a low profile vehicle without a personalized number plate.

Do not use a cell phone near the car until it is completely safe. It could detonate radio-controlled devices. Ensure only bona fide personnel know the make of your car and its registration number. Before switching the engine on check for a bitter almond smell (explosives) or masking smell – (perfume). If you’re a well-known personality never use obvious VIP parking spaces. Be familiar with your vehicle. This means remembering the layout under the hood well enough to spot any minor additions, which could be an explosive device. For example any brand new or unusual looking electrical tape or strange wiring. The presence of such tape or wiring could mean an IED is present. Also look out for any spilled powder residue within the engine compartment. This could indicate that there is chemical or explosive material present in the vehicle.

 

Report the Unusual

Do not hesitate to inform the police of any suspicious person, vehicle or incident near the area where you park your car. Remember, the registration number and description of a suspicious vehicle may be easier to obtain and more helpful than a personal description (the person may be using a disguise). Reporting anything unusual gives security specialists the chance to judge its significance. For instance, the trunk of a vehicle resting on or near the top of the tire could indicate that a large explosive device is hidden within.

 

Should you discover an Improvised Explosive Device or become suspicious of any device at or near a motor vehicle, do not touch or tamper with it. Some of these devices are highly sophisticated and others very crude. Either way, they can explode, even with very gentle handling. Forensic scientists can tell from the way a bomb is put together who assembled the device. Because bomb makers all have a unique signature for example, if someone makes a bomb then someone else does not make the exact same bomb in the exact same way.

Letter Bombs

 

Due to the existing terrorist situation, members of the armed forces, police and prison officers (due to the treatment of republican dissidents in prisons) civilian personal who work in military and Government establishments, high profile individuals such as politicians, reporters and businessmen should be particularly concerned about their own personal safety. Some letter or mail bombs are highly sophisticated and others very crude. Either way, they can explode, even with very gentle handling. Forensic scientists can tell from the way a bomb is put together who assembled the device. Because bomb makers all have a unique signature for example, if someone makes a bomb then someone else does not make the exact same bomb in the exact same way. 

 

Here are the tell tale signs of a letter or mail bomb:

  • Are you expecting it? Curiosity killed the cat!

  • Does it have a genuine return address? If unsure call them to check

  •  Is the recipient’s address or name spelt correctly?

  •  Is the package or letter wrapped excessively? 

  • Does it have excessive postage?

  •  Is it sent via another country?

  • Does it smell of marzipan? Or a masking smell of perfume?               

  • Mail or letter bombs may be addressed to a particular individual such as "PERSONAL", "PRIVATE" AND CONFIDENTIAL, "TO BE OPENED ONLY BY" etc

  •  Look out for child like handwriting

  •  Is there any oil, or grease stains on the package or letter, which can discharge an unusual odour especially through the postage stamps which may have tiny prick marks to allow the package to breath

  •  The package may state  “FRAGILE or HANDLE WITH EXTREME CARE

  •  Does it feel uneven or bulky?

       

If you are suspicious of any item:

  • Do not open or shake it

  • Isolate the suspicious item 

  • Calmly evacuate the immediate area

  • Do not put the item in water

  • Do not throw it out a window

  • Call the police immediately. 

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